Chapter 1: Observing the Armies on the Battlefield of Kurukñetra
tatrapasyat sthitan parthah
pitrn atha pitamahan
acaryan matulan bhratrn
putran pautran sakhims tatha
svasuran suhrdas caiva
senayor ubhayor api
tatra—there; apaçyat—he could see; sthitän—standing; pärthaù—Arjuna; pitèn—fathers; atha—also; pitämahän—grandfathers; äcäryän—teachers; mätulän—maternal uncles; bhrätèn—brothers; puträn—sons ; pauträn—grandsons; sakhén—friends; tathä—too, çvaçurän—fathers-in-law; suhådaù—wellwishers; ca—also; eva—certainly; senayoù—of the armies; ubhayoù—of both parties; api—including.
There Arjuna could see, within the midst of the armies of both parties, his fathers, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, and also his father-in-law and well-wishers-all present there.
On the battlefield Arjuna could see all kinds of relatives. He could see persons like Bhüriçravä, who were his father's contemporaries, grandfathers Bhéñma and Somadatta, teachers like Droëäcärya and Kåpäcärya, maternal uncles like Çalya and Çakuni, brothers like Duryodhana, sons like Lakñmaëa, friends like Açvatthämä, well-wishers like Kåtavarmä, etc. He could see also the armies which contained many of his friends.