Chapter 2: Contents of the Gétä Summarized
yavan artha udapane
tavan sarvesu vedesu
yävän—all that; arthaù—is meant; udapäne—in a well of water; sarvataù—in all respects; sampluta-udake—in a great reservoir of water; tävän—similarly; sarveñu—in all; vedeñu—Vedic literatures; brähmaëasya—of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman; vijänataù—of one who is in complete knowledge.
All purposes that are served by the small pond can at once be served by the great reservoirs of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them.
The rituals and sacrifices mentioned in the karma-käëòa
division of the Vedic literature are to encourage gradual development of self-realization. And the purpose of self-realization is clearly stated in the Fifteenth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gétä
): the purpose of studying the Vedas
is to know Lord Kåñëa, the primeval cause of everything. So, self-realization means understanding Kåñëa and one's eternal relationship with Him. The relationship of the living entities with Kåñëa is also mentioned in the Fifteenth Chapter of Bhagavad-gétä.
The living entities are parts and parcels of Kåñëa; therefore, revival of Kåñëa consciousness by the individual living entity is the highest perfectional stage of Vedic knowledge. This is confirmed in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam
) as follows:
aho bata çvapaco'to garéyän
yaj-jihvägre vartate näma tubhyam
tepus tapas te juhuvuù sasnur äryä
brahmänücur näma gåëanti ye te.
"O my Lord, a person who is chanting Your holy name, although born of a low family like that of a cäëòäla [dog eater], is situated on the highest platform of self-realization. Such a person must have performed all kinds of penances and sacrifices according to Vedic rituals and studied the Vedic literatures many, many times after taking his bath in all the holy places of pilgrimage. Such a person is considered to be the best of the Äryan family." So one must be intelligent enough to understand the purpose of the Vedas, without being attached to the rituals only, and must not desire to be elevated to the heavenly kingdoms for a better quality of sense gratification. It is not possible for the common man in this age to follow all the rules and regulations of the Vedic rituals and the injunctions of the Vedäntas and the Upaniñads. It requires much time, energy, knowledge and resources to execute the purposes of the Vedas. This is hardly possible in this age. The best purpose of Vedic culture is served, however, by chanting the holy name of the Lord, as recommended by Lord Caitanya, the deliverer of all fallen souls. When Lord Caitanya was asked by a great Vedic scholar, Prakäçänanda Sarasvaté, why He, the Lord, was chanting the holy name of the Lord like a sentimentalist instead of studying Vedänta philosophy, the Lord replied that His spiritual master found Him to be a great fool, and thus he asked Him to chant the holy name of Lord Kåñëa. He did so, and became ecstatic like a madman. In this age of Kali, most of the population is foolish and not adequately educated to understand Vedänta philosophy; the best purpose of Vedänta philosophy is served by inoffensively chanting the holy name of the Lord. Vedänta is the last word in Vedic wisdom, and the author and knower of the Vedänta philosophy is Lord Kåñëa; and the highest Vedantist is the great soul who takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord. That is the ultimate purpose of all Vedic mysticism.